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Fruits trees in stardew.valleyuniversity.ca Farm and Society
The Ecology of Fruits and Berries
Farm and Society 04-05-2002 Issue 33
Studies have shown that a plant's proximity to other plants has significant effects on its fruit production. The plants in the fruit and berry production areas of northern Californiaorchards and vineyardsproduce more high-quality fruit than the plants growing in areas not used for fruit production. One study found that the best quality vineyard in California averaged about 25 berry-pounds per acre per year, compared to approximately 1.5 to 15 berry-pounds per acre per year for a good vineyard and approximately 0.25 to 1.5 berry-pounds per acre per year for an average vineyard.
From these figures, it would appear that where fruit trees are planted, good fruit production is more likely to result. It may be logical to assume that fruits trees planted in or near greenhouses will produce more, since more sunlight is available and little competition exists for soil moisture and light. Unfortunately, this does not seem to be the case. New fruits trees in garden centers in California produce better fruit in the field than young fruits trees grown in greenhouses. Therefore, good fruit production seems to require the presence of other fruits trees and fruiting shrubs, particularly other plants that compete with fruit trees for soil moisture and light. Other factors also appear to affect fruit production, such as location of the plants in relation to the sun, wind, soil and water supply.
Soil composition also appears to affect the production of fruit. The production of good fruit trees in orchards and vineyards in northern California requires a specific type of soil. Good fruit orchards and vineyards have well-drained, loamy soils with high organic matter content. These soils will also have a sandy subsoil with some rock. High organic matter content means more potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. The sandy subsoil is essential, since clay soils can lead to a buildup of disease-causing organisms. The best orchards and vineyards have warm summers, but cold winters are also needed.
Soil does not appear to have a direct effect on the production of berries, but plants grown on sandy or clay soils tend to have less productivity than those grown on loamy soils.
There are specific soil requirements for producing fruits and berries, but it should be noted that soil is an important factor in producing other crops and plants. Fruits trees and shrubs need to be planted in an area that drains well. Many fruits are not grown near water sources. The soil must be loose enough to permit drainage and yet loose enough to retain moisture. This will help control weeds, which compete with the plants for space, water and light. It is also important to plant fruiting plants near other fruiting plants. The presence of other plants increases the soil's productivity by producing other needed nutrients, such as nitrogen. Many berries such as raspberries, blackberries and blueberries can be grown quite well in poorly drained, sandy soils.
To produce crops like fruits and berries, the soil must be amended. This means adding fertilizer or other chemicals. Additives are often added in the spring and fall. Care must be taken, however, that the soil is not overloaded with chemicals. Overuse of fertilizers and pesticides will decrease the soil's productivity. The effect of fertilizers and other chemicals on plants is not well understood, but is likely to decrease or prevent growth. Fruit-growing requires a fertilizer with the appropriate nutrient requirements of plants. Most nutrients must be applied in a two- or three-year cycle. The most important nutrients for fruits and berries are potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium and boron. Potassium is needed for the uptake and transport of water and sugar.
Fruits trees will be less vigorous when there is a deficiency in potassium. Liming helps fruit trees grow and hold the potassium. However, care must be taken that the soils are not overlimed. This can be done by adding sand to soils containing many cations (such as potassium and calcium). The cation-to-anion ratio must be well balanced, however, so that the soil is neither acidic nor alkaline.
Nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium are important for the nutrition of plants. Without these nutrients, plants do not grow and will produce low-quality fruit. If these nutrients are lacking, adding them to the soil, either through fertilizers or mulching, will increase the plants' growth and quality of fruit.
A lack of boron can affect the production of fruit and berries.To je důležité na podzim, kdy je půda teplá a ovocné stromy potřebují vláhu. K udržení této vlhkosti se používá bor. Také, když je půda teplá, déle zadržuje vodu, což usnadňuje zalévání. Dobrá půda je předem testována na bor